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Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace: Visual Supplement

If I had my way, this book would have been heavily illustrated.  The printing business being what it is these days, it could not bear the extra cost.  However, the internet — which is largely responsible for the decline of printing — also provides a partial way out of the problem.  Here, you can see the images that I would have added had I been able to.

Chapter 1

p.1: Portrait of Queen Christina, source of many of the quotations in this book and reigning Swedish monarch at the time of the Peace of Westphalia.

7: Witch scares: alive and well in the 1640’s.

9: D’Artagnan and Cyrano de Bergerac were both duelists as well as French couriers at the Congress of Westphalia

10: Galileo died under house arrest in 1642.

…and as an old man

11: Michelangelo’s statue of David (left) next to Bernini’s

Fall of the Damned by Rubens

Van Dyck’s portrait of Charles I

Marie de Medici as the Roman goddess Bellona (left), by Rubens

Lands of the elector of Brandenburg

12: Map showing the disparate realms of the elector of Brandenburg

European dominions of Philip II

Map showing the divided realms ruled by Philip IV — and this just includes the European lands, not those in the Americas, East Indies, or Philippines

Chapter 5

Münster in 1622

127: Image of Münster in 1622

Osnabrück (top), 1647

Image of Osnabrück in 1647

A common site in Münster’s streets:  free-range pigs

128: A photograph of St. Lambert’s church in Münster showing the cages used to kill the Anabaptist leaders

Painting of a Westphalian meal with ham and pumpernickel

Real pumpernickel, quite a bit denser and drier than what passes for pumpernickel in America

129: A woman wearing the distinctive Fellkenhaube headdress

133: Connections between Münster and Osnabrück

134: The Field of the Cloth of Gold:  how monarchs negotiated

136: An interactive map showing where the main representatives stayed in Münster (this one is not interactive; follow the link)

Adriaan Pauw's Entrance into Münster

144: Ter Borch’s painting of Adriaen Pauw’s entrance to Münster — quite restrained by contemporary standards

156: Postal connections  to the congress cities

Münster’s connections to Europe’s capitals

The "peace rider" spreading the news that the war is over

The “peace rider” announcing the Peace of Westphalia.  He blows the posthorn that was common to mail delivery in the Empire

Chapter 11

364:  An allegorical painting on the Peace of Westphalia by Joachim von Sandrart

366: An image of Otto von Guericke’s demonstration of the power of the vacuum

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