Your one-stop shop for everything related to the Peace of Westphalia

Don Gaspar De Bracamonte Y Guzmán, Count Of Peñaranda

Unlike many of the representatives at Westphalia, the Count of Peñaranda had very little diplomatic experience. He was, however, involved in Spanish government and was a protegé of the first minister, Don Luis de Haro. His goal was to make peace with the Dutch Republic so that Spain could negotiate against France from a stronger position. Although he succeeded in getting the Dutch to agree to a separate peace, however, soon thereafter the Emperor also made peace, leaving Spain without the support of its most important ally.

Peñaranda, like many others from the Mediterranean, hated being in Münster. Nevertheless, Philip IV refused him permissions to withdraw for even a short time. Given Spain’s financial difficulties, the count had difficulty matching the magnificent public display put on by the French, but he did his best. He was also at a disadvantage because France refused to cede precedence to Spain, with the result that Spain avoided many public events so they would not have to accept a position behind the French.

If I had to give instructions to a new ambassador, I would tell him to make a good peace, or a mediocre peace, or a bad peace, but to make peace, because there is no more time to delay, having arrived, as I believe, at the point when we no longer have any means of making war.

The count of Peñaranda