Biographies

The actors who made the Peace of Westphalia.

France

King Louis XIV

Queen Regent Anne

Cardinal Mazarin, French first minister.  Not so much a biography as a discussion of his cultural significance.

Claudes de Mesmes, Count d’Avaux

Abel Servien, Count de la Roche des Aubiers

Henri II d’Orléans, Duke of Longueville

Henri de Loménie de Brienne

Sweden

Queen Christina

Axel Oxenstierna

Johan Oxenstierna

Johan Adler Salvius

Spain

King Philip IV

Don Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzman, Count of Peñaranda

Dr. Joseph de Bergaigne

Don Diego de Saavedra y Fajardo

Austrian Habsburgs

Emperor Ferdinand III

Count Maximilian of Trauttmansdorff

Dr. Isaak Volmar

The Dutch Republic

Stadtholder Frederick Henry

Dr. Adriaan Pauw

Johan de Knuyt

Imperial Estates

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg

Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria

John George, Elector of Saxony

Amalia Elisabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel

Mediators

Pope Urban VIII

Pope Innocent X

Fabio Chigi

Alvise Contarini

King Christian IV of Denmark

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