Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace: Visual Supplement

If I had my way, this book would have been heavily illustrated.  The printing business being what it is these days, it could not bear the extra cost.  However, the internet — which is largely responsible for the decline of printing — also provides a partial way out of the problem.  Here, you can see the images that I would have added had I been able to.

Chapter 1

Queen Christina


p.1: Portrait of Queen Christina, source of many of the quotations in this book and reigning Swedish monarch at the time of the Peace of Westphalia.





Salem Witch Trials


7: Witch scares: alive and well in the 1640’s.





Cyrano de Bergerac

Charles de Batz-Castlemore, Count d’Artagnan
9: D’Artagnan and Cyrano de Bergerac were both duelists as well as French couriers at the Congress of Westphalia



10: Galileo died under house arrest in 1642.





Rembrandt as a young man

Rembrandt as an old man
Rembrandt as a young man and as an old man
11: Michelangelo’s statue of David (left) next to Bernini’s


Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa


Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Theresa







Fall of the Damned by Rubens


Fall of the Damned by Rubens







Van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I


Van Dyck’s portrait of Charles I







Velazquez, The Surrender of Breda


Velazquez, The Surrender of Breda






Marie de Medici as Bellona

The coronation of Marie de Medici
Marie de Medici as the Roman goddess Bellona (left), by RubensThe coronation of Marie de Medici by Rubens
Lands of the elector of Brandenburg


12: Map showing the disparate realms of the elector of Brandenburg




European dominions of Philip II


Map showing the divided realms ruled by Philip IV — and this just includes the European lands, not those in the Americas, East Indies, or Philippines
Chapter 5




Münster in 1622


127: Image of Münster in 1622



Osnabrück (top), 1647


Image of Osnabrück in 1647





Pigs in Münster


A common site in Münster’s streets:  free-range pigs





Anabaptists’ cages on St. Lambert’s Church, Münster


128: A photograph of St. Lambert’s church in Münster showing the cages used to kill the Anabaptist leaders





Westphalian meal


Painting of a Westphalian meal with ham and pumpernickel




Authentic pumpernickel


Real pumpernickel, quite a bit denser and drier than what passes for pumpernickel in America




Woman in Felkenhaube


129: A woman wearing the distinctive Fellkenhaube headdress







Connections between Münster and Osnabrück


133: Connections between Münster and Osnabrück





The Field of the Cloth of Gold


134: The Field of the Cloth of Gold:  how monarchs negotiated




Map of Münster showing the ambassadors’ residences


136: An interactive map showing where the main representatives stayed in Münster






Adriaan Pauw’s Entrance into Münster


144: Ter Borch’s painting of Adriaen Pauw’s entrance to Münster — quite restrained by contemporary standards





Postal connections to the Congress cities


156: Postal connections  to the congress cities





Münster’s connections to European capitals


Münster’s connections to Europe’s capitals





The “peace rider” spreading the news that the war is over


The “peace rider” announcing the Peace of Westphalia.  He blows the posthorn that was common to mail delivery in the Empire





Chapter 11

Allegory on the Peace of Westphalia, Joachim Sandrart, 1648


364:  An allegorical painting on the Peace of Westphalia by Joachim von Sandrart







Guericke’s demonstration of the vacuum


366: An image of Otto von Guericke’s demonstration of the power of the vacuum

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