Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace: Visual Supplement
If I had my way, this book would have been heavily illustrated. The printing business being what it is these days, it could not bear the extra cost. However, the internet — which is largely responsible for the decline of printing — also provides a partial way out of the problem. Here, you can see the images that I would have added had I been able to.
p.1: Portrait of Queen Christina, source of many of the quotations in this book and reigning Swedish monarch at the time of the Peace of Westphalia.
7: Witch scares: alive and well in the 1640’s.
|9: D’Artagnan and Cyrano de Bergerac were both duelists as well as French couriers at the Congress of Westphalia|
10: Galileo died under house arrest in 1642.
|Rembrandt as a young man and as an old man|
|11: Michelangelo’s statue of David (left) next to Bernini’s|
Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Theresa
Fall of the Damned by Rubens
Van Dyck’s portrait of Charles I
Velazquez, The Surrender of Breda
|Marie de Medici as the Roman goddess Bellona (left), by RubensThe coronation of Marie de Medici by Rubens|
12: Map showing the disparate realms of the elector of Brandenburg
Map showing the divided realms ruled by Philip IV — and this just includes the European lands, not those in the Americas, East Indies, or Philippines
127: Image of Münster in 1622
Image of Osnabrück in 1647
A common site in Münster’s streets: free-range pigs
128: A photograph of St. Lambert’s church in Münster showing the cages used to kill the Anabaptist leaders
Painting of a Westphalian meal with ham and pumpernickel
Real pumpernickel, quite a bit denser and drier than what passes for pumpernickel in America
129: A woman wearing the distinctive Fellkenhaube headdress
133: Connections between Münster and Osnabrück
134: The Field of the Cloth of Gold: how monarchs negotiated
136: An interactive map showing where the main representatives stayed in Münster
144: Ter Borch’s painting of Adriaen Pauw’s entrance to Münster — quite restrained by contemporary standards
156: Postal connections to the congress cities
Münster’s connections to Europe’s capitals
The “peace rider” announcing the Peace of Westphalia. He blows the posthorn that was common to mail delivery in the Empire
364: An allegorical painting on the Peace of Westphalia by Joachim von Sandrart
366: An image of Otto von Guericke’s demonstration of the power of the vacuum