Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace: Visual Supplement

If I had my way, this book would have been heavily illustrated.  The printing business being what it is these days, it could not bear the extra cost.  However, the internet — which is largely responsible for the decline of printing — also provides a partial way out of the problem.  Here, you can see the images that I would have added had I been able to.

Chapter 1

Queen Christina

 

p.1: Portrait of Queen Christina, source of many of the quotations in this book and reigning Swedish monarch at the time of the Peace of Westphalia.

 

 

 

 

Salem Witch Trials

 

7: Witch scares: alive and well in the 1640’s.

 

 

 

 

Cyrano de Bergerac

Charles de Batz-Castlemore, Count d’Artagnan

9: D’Artagnan and Cyrano de Bergerac were both duelists as well as French couriers at the Congress of Westphalia

Galileo

 

 

10: Galileo died under house arrest in 1642.

 

 

 

 

Rembrandt as a young man

Rembrandt as an old man

Rembrandt as a young man and as an old man

Two statues of David: Michelangelo’s (left) and Bernini’s

 

11: Michelangelo’s statue of David (left) next to Bernini’s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

 

Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Theresa

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fall of the Damned by Rubens

 

Fall of the Damned by Rubens

 

 

 

 

 

 

Van Dyck, Portrait of Charles I

 

Van Dyck’s portrait of Charles I

 

 

 

 

 

 

Velazquez, The Surrender of Breda

 

Velazquez, The Surrender of Breda

 

 

 

 

 

Marie de Medici as Bellona

The coronation of Marie de Medici

Marie de Medici as the Roman goddess Bellona (left), by RubensThe coronation of Marie de Medici by Rubens

Lands of the elector of Brandenburg

 

12: Map showing the disparate realms of the elector of Brandenburg

 

 

 

European dominions of Philip II

 

Map showing the divided realms ruled by Philip IV — and this just includes the European lands, not those in the Americas, East Indies, or Philippines
Chapter 5

 

 

 

Münster in 1622

 

127: Image of Münster in 1622

 

 

Osnabrück (top), 1647

 

Image of Osnabrück in 1647

 

 

 

 

Pigs in Münster

 

A common site in Münster’s streets:  free-range pigs

 

 

 

 

Anabaptists’ cages on St. Lambert’s Church, Münster

 

128: A photograph of St. Lambert’s church in Münster showing the cages used to kill the Anabaptist leaders

 

 

 

 

Westphalian meal

 

Painting of a Westphalian meal with ham and pumpernickel

 

 

 

Authentic pumpernickel

 

Real pumpernickel, quite a bit denser and drier than what passes for pumpernickel in America

 

 

 

Woman in Felkenhaube

 

129: A woman wearing the distinctive Fellkenhaube headdress

 

 

 

 

 

 

Connections between Münster and Osnabrück

 

133: Connections between Münster and Osnabrück

 

 

 

 

The Field of the Cloth of Gold

 

134: The Field of the Cloth of Gold:  how monarchs negotiated

 

 

 

Map of Münster showing the ambassadors’ residences

 

136: An interactive map showing where the main representatives stayed in Münster

 

 

 

 

 

Adriaan Pauw’s Entrance into Münster

 

144: Ter Borch’s painting of Adriaen Pauw’s entrance to Münster — quite restrained by contemporary standards

 

 

 

 

Postal connections to the Congress cities

 

156: Postal connections  to the congress cities

 

 

 

 

Münster’s connections to European capitals

 

Münster’s connections to Europe’s capitals

 

 

 

 

The “peace rider” spreading the news that the war is over

 

The “peace rider” announcing the Peace of Westphalia.  He blows the posthorn that was common to mail delivery in the Empire

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11

Allegory of the Peace of Westphalia by Joachim Sandrart

 

364:  An allegorical painting on the Peace of Westphalia by Joachim von Sandrart

 

 

 

 

 

 

Otto von Guericke’s demonstration of the vacuum

 

366: An image of Otto von Guericke’s demonstration of the power of the vacuum

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